1.New Chains of Space Weather Monitoring Stations in China(2010)

  Wang Chi


  To develop an understanding of near-Earth space’s response to solar activities and to eventually enhance the success of space weather predictions, it is crucial to make synergetic observations of the entire environment from the Sun to the Earth as a system. Since the beginning of the space era, direct observations by satellites have become a much needed means toward this end. However, ground-based observations also have advantages and serve as a counterpart to those made in space. For example, instruments on the ground are much less expensive and easier to repair than those on satellites. Groundbased observations provide continuous high- resolution data not subject to the limitation of the downlink data rate from satellites to ground receiving stations. Also, because some observations have been made from Earth for hundreds of years, society has long and continuous records of quantities such as geomagnetic field variations, measurements of relative ionospheric opacity, and sunspot observations. Data from spacecraft, on the other hand, go back only a few decades. 

  China has a total land area of about 9,600,000 square kilometers, with geomagnetic locations covering middle to low latitudes. The first geomagnetic observatory in China was constructed in Beijing in 1870 by Russians, but it ceased working in 1882. China briefly participated in the International Geophysical Year (1957–1958) and started to explore the upper atmosphere using rockets and balloons in the 1960s. Though research at government institutions and universities picked up in the late twentieth century, the ability to monitor the geospace environment and capture the evolution and characteristics of the weather in geospace above China is still insufficient today. Not only is China’s large population increasingly reliant on space-based technologies, but there are also not enough locations across the country where space weather conditions are monitored. This limits Chinese scientists’ understanding of the basic physical processes in geospace and their ability to make accurate predictions of adverse space weather for their country’s citizens. To acknowledge the needs of both basic science and useful space weather operations, a ground-based program to monitor China’s geospace environment is currently under way. Called the Meridian Space Weather Monitoring Project (or Chinese Meridian Project), the effort consists of a chain of 15 ground-based observatories located roughly along 120°E longitude and 30°N latitude. Each observatory is equipped with multiple instruments to measure key parameters such as the baseline and time- varying geomagnetic field, as well as the middle and upper atmosphere and ionosphere from about 20 to 1000 kilometers. Starting in 2011, the project will collect data for at least 11 years, providing the wide-range, continuous, and multiparameter data sets needed to guide model developments, which in turn will better describe and predict the characteristics and dynamics of the geospace environment.

  Link: Wang Chi (2010), New Chains of Space Weather Monitoring Stations in China, Space Weather,  8, S08001, doi:10.1029/2010SW000603


  2.Science Objectives and Observation System for the International Meridian Circle(2019)

  Liu W, Blanc M, Bounhir A, Donovan E, Falanga M, Foster J, Fu S, Giménez A, Gonzalez W, Gopalswamy N, Guo X, Klein L, Lei J, Lester M, Lu D, Opgenoorth H, Ouattara F, Oyama K I, Pierrard V, Qie X, Rabiu B, Rao H, Ren L, Shen X, Vasilyev R, Wu Q, Xu J, Yan Y, Yang F, Yue X, Zhang B, Zhang Qi, Zhang S, Zou S.


  Our Spaceship Earth sails the Solar System in a sea of plasmas, interfacing with it via a critical boundary layer through which a broad diversity of energy transfer processes takes place at time scales from a fraction of a second to millennia: our Earth’s Ionosphere, Upper, and Middle Atmosphere, which will here be named the IMUA for short. Understanding the role that transfer processes through and to the IMUA play in the global changes driven by natural and anthropogenic forcing affecting our planet is a major scientific challenge for the scientific community of the XXIst century. It is this challenge, and the grand vision of a more comprehensive, better integrated and truly interdisciplinary description of our Earth System, which the International Meridian Circle Program (IMCP) has undertaken to meet.

  The International Meridian Circle Program is an active proposal to the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology for the international scientific community to address this major scientific challenge. Building on the already funded Chinese Meridian Project, its ambition is to deploy and operate for the first time a global, internationally coordinated observing system which will give us the capacity of monitoring at all relevant spatial and temporal scales the diversity of energy transfer processes affecting the IMUA, may they be driven from above (interplanetary space) or from below (solid and fluid Earth). The main purpose of this report is to describe the successive scientific and logical steps leading to the design of such an observation system.

  Link: Liu Weining et al.(2019), Science Objectives and Observation System for the International Meridian Circle, Calling Taikong


  3.International Meridian Circle Program(2020)

  LIU William, WANG Chi, SHEN Xuhui, WU Jian, BLANC Michel, YAN Yihua, FU Suiyan, YUE Xinan, LEI Jiuhou, GONG Wei, ZHANG Shaodong, ZHANG Qinghe, WANG Xin, YANG Jing, ZHANG Xiaoxin, GAO Jing, XU Jiyao, YANG Guotao, LI Hui, REN Liwen, YANG Fang


  The Earth is buffered from the ferocious onslaught of the solar wind by a thin layer of matter known as the atmosphere and geospace. This layer absorbs energy from irradiance and outburst from the Sun, as well as from disasters, transient phenomena and anthropogenic emissions originated from Earth. Through complicated physics, the absorbed energy changes the atmospheric and geospace state and sometimes gets re-released to power extreme events such as space weather. Taking place globally, these complicated processes cannot be understood unless they are studied globally. The Chinese scientists have proposed the International Meridian Circle Program (IMCP) to meet this demand. By operating nearly 1000 instruments encompassing all latitudes along with the 120°E–60°W longitudes, IMCP aims, for the first time, to construct comprehensive 3D data representation of the atmosphere and geospace on a global scale and empower interdisciplinary research to tackle key questions related to Earth’s environment and climate change.

  Link: Liu Weining et al.(2020), International Meridian Circle Program[J]. Chinese Journal of Space Science, 40(5): 723-725.


  4.Introduction to Chinese Meridian Project-Phase II(2020)

  WANG Chi, Chen Zhiqing, XU Jiyao


  The Chinese Meridian Project is a ground-based space environment monitoring network, which is constructed in two steps. The first step (Phase I) of the project consists of 15 observation stations located roughly along 120°E longitude and 30°N latitude. The second step (Phase II) of the project will additionally deploy 16 stations to better cover China’s territory, and build a stereo monitoring capability to monitor the cause and effect of the space weather chain in the solar terrestrial system. Based on the existing two monitoring chains in Phase I, two more chains will be established along 100°E longitude and 40°N latitude, respectively, forming a double-cross network configuration. After the two-step construction, the whole project will run nearly 300 instruments deployed at 31 stations. Aside from standard instruments, quite a few innovative and powerful instruments will be developed, such as radioheliographs with a very wide frequency band, a 3-station incoherent scattering radar to make a 3D measurement of the ionosphere, and a helium lidar to measure atmosphere density up to an altitude of 1000 km.

  Link: Wang Chi et al. (2020), Introduction to Chinese Meridian Project-Phase II[J]. Chinese Journal of Space Science, 40(5): 718-722.



  5.Scientific challenges and instrumentation for the International Meridian Circle Program(2021)

  William LIU, Michel BLANC,Chi WANG, Eric DONOVAN, John FOSTER, Mark LESTER, Hermann OPGENOORTH and Liwen REN


  Earth’s ecosystems and human activities are threatened by a broad spectrum of hazards of major importance for the safety of ground infrastructures, space systems and space flight: solar activity, earthquakes, atmospheric and climatic dis-turbances, changes in the geomagnetic field, fluctuations of the global electric circuit. Monitoring and understanding these major hazards to better predict and mitigate their effects is one of the greatest scientific and operational challenges of the 21st century. Though diverse, these hazards share one feature in common: they all leave their characteristic imprints on a critical layer of the Earth’s environment: its ionosphere, middle and upper atmosphere (IMUA). The objective of the International Meridian Circle Program (IMCP), a major international program led by the Chines Academy of Sciences (CAS), is to deploy, integrate and operate a global network of research and monitoring instruments to use the IMUA as a screen on which to detect these imprints. In this article, we first show that the geometry required for the IMCP global observation system leads to a deployment of instruments in priority along the 120°E–60°W great meridian circle, which will cover in an optimal way both the dominant geographic and geomagnetic latitude variations, possibly complemented by a second Great Circle along the 30°E–150°W meridians to capture longitude variations. Then, starting from the Chinese Meridian Project (CMP) network and using it as a template, we give a preliminary and promising description of the instruments to be integrated and deployed along the 120°E–60°W great circle running across China, Australia and the Americas. 

  Link: Liu W et al (2021). Scientific challenges and instrumentation for the International Meridian Circle Program. Science China Earth Sciences, 64(12): 2090–2097








  1. On developing a new ionospheric plasma index for Brazilian equatorial F region irregularities

  Laysa Cristina Araujo Resende, C. M. Denardini, Giorgio Arlan Silva, Juliano Moro, Diego Barros, Cosme Alexandre, Regia Pereira Silva



  2. Dayside Magnetopause Reconnection: Its Dependence on Solar Wind and Magnetosheath Conditions

  D. Koga, W.D. Gonzalez, V.M. Souza, F.R. Cardoso, C. Wang, and Z.K.Liu



  3. Analysis of Cosmic Rays' Atmospheric Effects and Their Relationships to Cutoff Rigidity and Zenith Angle Using Global Muon Detector Network Data

  R.R.S. Mendonca, C. Wang, C.R. Braga, E.Echer, A. Da Lago, J.E.R. Costa, K. Munakata, H.Ki, Z. Liu, J-P. Raulin, T. Kuwabara, M. Kozai, C. Kato, M. Rockenbach, J.J. Schuch, H.K. Al Jassar, M.M. Sharma, M. Tokumaru, M. L. Duldig, J.E.Humble, P. Evenson and I. Sabbah



  4. A Global Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation Study of Ultra-frequency Wave Activity in the Inner  Magnetosphere: Corotating Interaction Region + Alfvenic Fluctuations

  P.R.Jauer, C. Wang, V.M. Souza, M.V.Alves, L.R.Alves M. B. Padua, J.P. Marchezi, Da L A. Silva, Z. Liu, H. LI, L.E.A. Vieira, A. Dal Lago, W.D.Gonzalez, E.Echer, C. Medeiros, J.E.R. Costa, and C.M. Denardini



  5. Nocturnal and Seasonal Variation of Na and K Layers Simultaneously Observed in the MLT Region at 23°S

  V.F.Andrioli, J. Xu, P.P.Batista, A.A. Pimenta, L.C.A.Resende, S.Savio, P.R.Fagundes, G.Yang, J.Jiao, X.Cheng, C.Wang, and Z. Liu



  6. Performance of the IRI-2016 over Santa Maria, a Brazilian low-latitude station located in the central region of the South American Magnetic Anomaly(SAMA)

  Juliano Moro, Jiyao Xu, Clezio Marcos Denardini, Laysa Cristiana Araujo Resende, Regia Pereira Silva, Sony Su Chen, Giorgio Arlan da Silva Picanço, Liu Zhengkuan, Hui Li Chunxiao Yan, Chi Wang and Nelson Jorge Schuch



  7. The Influence of Distrubance Dynamo Electric Field in the Formation of Strong Sporadic E Layers Over Boa Vista, a Low-Latitude Station in the American Sector

  L.C.A.Resende, J.K.Shi, C.M.Denardini, I.S.Batista, P.A.B.Nogueira, C.Arras, V.F.Andrioli, J.Moro, L.A.Da Silva, A.J.Carrasco, P.F.Barbosa, c. Wang and Z. Liu



  8. Magnetotail reconnection onset caused by electron kinetics with a strong external driver

  San Lu, Ronsheng Wang, Quanming Lu, V. Angelopoulos, R. Nakamura, A.V.Artemyev, P.L.Pritchett, T.Z.Liu, X-J. Zhang, W.Baumjohann, W.Gonzalez, A.C.Rager, R.B.Torbert, B.L.Giles, D.J.Gershman, C.T.Russell, R.J.Strangeway, Y.Qi, R.E.Ergun, P-A. Lindqvist, J.L.Burch and Shui Wang



  9. Dynamic mechanisms associated with high-energy electron flux dropout in the Earth’s outer radiation belt under the influence of a coronal mass ejection sheath region 

  Da Silva, L. A.1,2; Shi, J.1; Alves, L. R.2; Sibeck, D.3; Souza, V. M.2; Marchezi, J. P.2; Medeiros, C.2; Vieira, L. E. A.2; Agapitov, O.6; Jauer, P. R.1,2; Alves, M. E. S.7; Wang, C.1; Li, H.1; Liu, Z.1; Dal Lago A.2; Alves, M. V.2; Rockenbach, M. S. 2; Baker, D. N.4; Zhang, S. Y.5;  Kanekal, S. G.3.



  10. First look at a geomagnetic storm with Santa Maria Digisonde data: F region responses and comparisons over ther American sector

  J. Moro*, J. Xu, C. M. Denardini, L. C. A. Resende, P.F.Barbosa Neto, L.A. Da Silva, R. P. Silva, S.S.Chen, G.A.S.Picanço, C.S.Carmo Z. Liu, H. Li, C. Yan, C. Wang1, and N. J. Schuch



  11. Lidar Observations in South America - Troposhere/Startosphere/Mesosphere

  Eduardo Landulfo, Cristina Sousa, Silvina Brusca, Maria Prietro, Clodomira Pereyra, Facundo Casasola, Fabio Lopes, Alexandre Yoshida, Estivén Sanchez,Daniel Santos, Ediclê Duarte, Renata Sammara, Facundo Orte, Eliam Wolfram, Juan Pallotta, Jonatan Silva, Marcos Araujo, Judith Hoelzemann, Elena Montilla-Rosero, John Reina, Ricardo Forno, Chi Wang, Vania Andrioli, Maria Martins, Alexandre Pimenta, Paulo Batista, Juan Antuña, Pablo Ristori, Alexandre Cacheffo, Jiyao Xu, Boris Barja Gonzáles, Marcos Andrade, Lidia Otero, Jacobo Salvador, Henrique Barbosa, Gregori Arruda Moreira, Felix Zamorano, Eduardo Quel, Diego Alves Gouveia and Antonio Arleques






  1. Postmidnight equatorial plasma irregularities on the June solstice during low solar activity – a case study

  Claudia M. N. Candido, Jiankui Shi, Inez S. Batista, Fabio Becker-Guedes, Emília Correia, Mangalathayil A. Abdu, Jonathan Makela, Nanan Balan, Narayan Chapagain, Chi Wang, and Zhengkuan Liu



  2. Contribution of ULF Wave Activity to the Global Recovery of the Outer Radiation Belt During the Passage of a High‐Speed Solar Wind Stream Observed in September 2014

  L. A. Da Silva1, D. Sibeck, L. R. Alves, V. M. Souza, P. R. Jauer



  3. On the Contribution of EMIC Waves to the Reconfiguration of the Relativistic Electron Butterfly Pitch Angle Distribution Shape on 2014 September 12—A Case Study

  Claudia Medeiros1 , V. M. Souza1, L. E. A. Vieira1, D. G. Sibeck2, A. J. Halford3, S.-B. Kang2, L. A. Da Silva1,6, L. R. Alves1, J. P. Marchezi1, R. S. Dallaqua1, P. R. Jauer1,6, M. Rockenbach1, O. Mendes1, M. V. Alves1, A. Dal Lago1, M.-C. Fok2, S. G. Kanekal2, D. N. Baker4, and C. A. Kletzing5



  4. Quasiperiodic Rising Structures in the E-F Valley Region Below the Equatorial Plasma Bubble: A Numerical Study

  S. Savio1,2,3 , J. Sousasantos4 , A. A. Pimenta2 , G. Yang1,3 , E. A. Kherani2 , C. Wang1 ,and Z. Liu1,3



  5. Investigation of solar cycle dependence of the tides in the low latitude MLT using meteor radar observations

  A. Guharay a,*, P.P. Batista b, V.F. Andrioli



  6. On the sources of the ionospheric variability in the South American Magnetic Anomaly during solar minimum

  J. Moro1,2*, J. Xu1, C. M. Denardini3, L. C. A. Resende3, R. P. Silva3, Z. Liu1, H. Li1, C. Yan1, C. Wang1, and N. J. Schuch2








  1. Response of the total electron content at Brazilian low latitudes to corotating interaction region and high-speed streams during solar minimum 2008

  Candido, Claudia M. N.; Batista, Inez S.; Klausner, Virginia; de Siqueira Negreti, Patricia M.; Becker-Guedes, Fabio; de Paula, Eurico R.; Shi, Jiankui; Correia, Emilia S.



  2. Simultaneous lidar observation of peculiar sporadic K and Na layers at Sao Jose dos Campos (23.1 degrees S, 45.9 degrees W), Brazil

  Jiao, Jing; Yang, Guotao; Cheng, Xuewu; Liu, Zhengkuan; Wang, Jihong; Yan, Zhenzhong; Wang, Chi; Batista, Paulo; Pimenta, Alexandre; Andrioli, Vania; Denardini, C. M.



  3. Solar Effects on the Atmospheric Electric Field During 2010-2015 at Low Latitudes

  Tacza, J.; Raulin, J. -P.; Mendonca, R. R. S.; Makhmutov, V. S.; Marun, A.; Fernandez, G.



  4. Study of sporadic E layers based on GPS radio occultation measurements and digisonde data over the Brazilian region

  Resende, Laysa C. A.; Arras, Christina; Batista, Inez S.; Denardini, Clezio M.; Bertollotto, Thaina O.; Moro, Juliano



  5. The 2015 Summer Solstice Storm: One of the Major Geomagnetic Storms of Solar Cycle 24 Observed at Ground Level

  Augusto, C. R. A.; Navia, C. E.; de Oliveira, M. N.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Raulin, J. P.; Tueros, E.; de Mendonca, R. R. S.; Fauth, A. C.; Vieira de Souza, H.; Kopenkin, V.; Sinzi, T.



  6. The Embrace Magnetometer Network for South America: First Scientific Results

  Denardini, C. M.; Chen, S. S.; Resende, L. C. A.; Moro, J.; Bilibio, A. V.; Fagundes, P. R.; Gende, M. A.; Cabrera, M. A.; Bolzan, M. J. A.; Padilha, A. L.; Schuch, N. J.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Alves, L. R.; Barbosa Neto, P. F.; Nogueira, P. A. B.; Picanco, G. A. S.; Bertollotto, T. O.



  7. The Embrace Magnetometer Network for South America: Network Description and Its Qualification

  Denardini, C. M.; Chen, S. S.; Resende, L. C. A.; Moro, J.; Bilibio, A. V.; Fagundes, P. R.; Gende, M. A.; Cabrera, M. A.; Bolzan, M. J. A.; Padilha, A. L.; Schuch, N. J.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Alves, L. R.; Barbosa Neto, P. F.; Nogueira, P. A. B.; Picanco, G. A. S.; Bertollotto, T. O.



  8. The influence of tidal winds in the formation of blanketing sporadic e-layer over equatorial Brazilian region

  Araujo Resende, Laysa Cristina; Batista, Inez Staciarini; Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Batista, Paulo Prado; Carrasco, Alexander Jose; Andrioli, Vania Fatima; Moro, Juliano



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